Wednesday, March 23, 2011

the kidney..i must remember this..!!!OMG!!

The regions of the kidney. Can you name the parts?
You should be able to name all the parts labelled A to F. Click on any one of the letters to find out more about that part.
This has a large diameter and a thin wall. It carries blood away from the kidney and back to the right hand side of the heart. Blood in the kidney has had all its urea removed. Urea is produced by your liver to get rid of excess amino-acids.
Blood in the renal vein also has exactly the right amount of water and salts. This is because the kidney gets rid of excess water and salts. The kidney is controlled by the brain. A hormone in our blood called Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH for short) is used to control exactly how much water is excreted.
This blood vessel supplies blood to the kidney from the left hand side of the heart. This blood must contain glucose and oxygen because the kidney has to work hard producing urine. Blood in the renal artery must have sufficient pressure or the kidney will not be able to filter the blood.
Blood supplied to the kidney contains a toxic product called urea which must be removed from the blood. It may have too much salt and too much water. The kidney removes these excess materials; that is its function.
This is the region of the kidney where urine collects. If you are very unlucky, you may develop kidney stones. Sometimes the salts in the urine crystallise in the pelvis and form a solid mass which prevents urine from draining out of the medulla of the kidney. You will need treatment: see your doctor.
This one is easy peasy: the ureter carries the urine down to the bladder. It does this 24 hours per day, but fortunately the urine can be stored in a bladder so that it is not necessary to wear a nappy!
The medulla is the inside part of the kidney. It is shown in green in the diagram, but in real life it is a very dark red colour. This is where the amount of salt and water in your urine is controlled. It consists of billions of loops of Henlé. These work very hard pumping sodium ions. ADH makes the loops work harder to pump more sodium ions. The result of this is that very concentrated urine is produced.
The opposite of an anti-diuretic is a "diuretic". Alcohol and tea are diuretics.
The cortex is the outer part of the kidney. This is where blood is filtered. We call this process "ultra-filtration" or "high pressure filtration" because it only works if the blood entering the kidney in the renal artery is at high pressure.
Billions of glomeruli are found in the cortex. A glomerulus is a tiny ball of capillaries. Each glomerulus is surrounded by a "Bowman's Capsule". Glomeruli leak. Things like red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and fibrinogen stay in the blood vessels. Most of the plasma leaks out into the Bowman's capsules. This is about 160 litres of liquid every 24 hours.
Most of this liquid, which we call "ultra-filtrate" is re-absorbed in the medulla and put back into the blood.
Here is a diagram of the kidney showing a nephron broken up into six parts. Each part has a specific function. You can click on a letter to find out what that part does.
The kidney nephron exploded into it separate parts. Click on a letter to find out what the part does.
Here is a diagram of a nephron put back together again. You can click on a green or red area to find out what happens there. Ultra-filtration happens in the red area, and re-absorption happens in the green areas.
The kidney nephron. Click on a green or red area to find out what the part does.
This is where ultra-filtration takes place. Blood from the renal artery is forced into the glomerulus under high pressure. Most of the liquid is forced out of the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule which surrounds it. This does not work properly in people who have very low blood pressure.
Don't worry about remembering the name for your GCSE biology. Jolly good though if you can. Proximal means "near to" and convoluted means "coiled up" so this is the coiled up tube near to the Bowman's capsule.
This is the place where all that useful glucose is re-absorbed from the ultra-filtrate and put back into the blood. If the glucose was not absorbed it would end up in your urine. This happens in people who are suffering from diabetes.
Losing glucose in your urine is bad news; how much did those chips at lunchtime cost you?
This part of the nephron is where water is reabsorbed. Kidney cells in this region spend all their time pumping sodium ions. This makes the medulla very salty; you could say that this is a region of very low water concentration. If you remember the definition of osmosis, you will realise that water will pass from a region of high water concentration (the ultra-filtrate and urine) into a region of low water concentration (the medulla) through cell membranes which are semi-permeable.
Don't worry too much about the name. Distal means "distant" so it is at the other end of the nephron from the Bowman's capsule. This is where most of the salts in the ultra-filtrate are re-absorbed.
Collecting ducts run through the medulla and are surrounded by loops of Henlé. The liquid in the collecting ducts (ultra-filtrate) is turned into urine as water and salts are removed from it. Although our kidneys make about 160 litres of urine every 24 hours, we only produce about ½ litre of urine.
It is called a collecting duct because it collects the liquid produced by lots of nephrons.
So now you know how your kidney works !

Sunday, March 20, 2011

tidurlah sayang...

Angin ini, yang membawa pesan malam-mu.
Menari-nari menggelitik-ku,
Bersiul-siul menidurkanku,
Memberi satu pesan tersirat di antara ribuan hembusannya.
Tanah basah ini, yang membawa pesan malam-mu
Merayap naik ke tubuhku,
Hidupkan kematian menjadi vegetasi,
Memberi satu pesan tersirat di antara jutaan kebangkitannya.
Cahaya bintang di langit, dengarkan permintaanku.
Terangi malam yang redup,
Menghangatkan malam yang dingin,
Satu permintaan yang selalu kuucapkan pada-Nya.
Matikan aku dalam kegelapanmu
Selamat malam, sayang
Semoga esok matahari tak terbenam.


Alhamdulilah...hujan, kilat, guruh, banjir, lampu isyarat merah berjaya kami harungi untuk smpai ke masjid taman intan..sedang berlari anak2..kami basah agak majlis tetap diteruskan..yang elok xelok diperlambatkan..smpai2. .tok kadi yg belum smpai..maybe kami terlampau excited kot..tue yg smpai awaii tue..then selesai sja tok imam bca pe sume..kami pun tadah tapak tangan dengan syukurNya kak aziela telah di ijab kabul kan...AMIN.. :)

bila si dia sanggup...

1. temankan aku balik time malam..aku drive dya follow gan moto
    dlam keadaan gelap n hujan..
2. mai umah sbab isaw kan aku call 23 kali xdapt2..aku ter-off hp
3.sanggup mai malam2 hantar nasi bungkus sbab aku lapar..
4.sanggup layan kerenah aku yg sangat MELAMPAU..DEGIL..
5.sanggup habiskan duit kerja dia untuk aku makan dan makan!!

 i love u sayang...

Saturday, March 12, 2011

You are the thunder and I am the lightening..........~~

"A Year Without Rain"

Can you feel me

When I think about you
With every breath I take
Every minute
No matter what I do
My world is an empty place

Like I've been wandering the desert

For a thousand days (oh)
Don't know if it's a mirage
But I always see your face, Baby

I'm missing you so much
Can't help it, I'm in love
A day without you is like a year without rain
I need you by my side
Don't know how I'll survive
A day without you is like a year without rain

The stars are burning

I hear your voice in my mind (in my mind)
Can't you hear me calling?
My heart is yearning
Like the ocean that's running dry
Catch me, I'm falling

It's like the ground is crumbling underneath my feet

Won't you save me?
There's gonna be a monsoon
When you get back to me

So let this drought come to an end

And make this desert flower again
I'm so glad you found me
Stick around me baby baby baby
It's a world of wonder with you in my life
So hurry baby don't waste no more time
I need you here
I can't explain
But a day without you
Is like a year without rain

Hold a true friend with both your hands...(^_^)

Standing by,
All the way.
Here to help you through your day.

Holding you up,
When you are weak,
Helping you find what it is you seek.

Catching your tears,
When you cry.
Pulling you through when the tide is high.

Just being there,
Through thick and thin,
All just to say, you are my friend.

- Brittani Kokko -

gud nytezz my dear lover..

For You Are The One

For you I would climb
The highest mountain peak
Swim the deepest ocean
Your love I do seek.

For you I would cross
The rivers most wide
Walk the hottest desert sand
To have you by my side.

For you are the one
Who makes me whole
You've captured my heart
And touched my soul.

For you are the one
That stepped out of my dreams
Gave me new hope
Showed me what love means.

For you alone
Are my reason to live
For the compassion you show
And the care that you give.

You came into my life
And made me complete
Each time I see you
My heart skips a beat.

For you define beauty
In both body and mind
Your soft, gentle face
More beauty I'll ne'er find.

For you are the one
God sent from above
The angel I needed
For whom I do love.

- Chris Messick -

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

sungaiku hidupku

view at sg petani...wahh nice view..tapi smpai kad stu tempat tue smpah punya laa byk..rse ikan pun xley nk survive kad sini..

abg bot...pnjam stereng jap k...dri luar kapal luar kapal smpai laa ke stereng kami posing...hehe

ini sume cek abg2..alahaii berat sgt kami dpat lintas dia org..daa2..jmpa kad jeti..

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

tomorrow gonna be freed0m to me..^^

yeahh..tomorrow i'll done my last paper..that its CHEMISTRY.. hopefully i can get better mark then b4.. s0 this early morning i spend my time wif references b0ok..sometimes quite bored wif this' thing..hahaha.. study about tiny molecules such a silly..i cant see that can i study.. (alasan yg kukuh ble fail)..^^